NEW AND INTERESTING RECORDS OF LICHENS AND
LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI FROM OHIO
James C. Lendemer
Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126, U.S.A.
– e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. – New records of Bacidia sorediata are reported, expanding the known distribution of the species in Ohio. The following species are reported for the first time from Ohio: Fuscidea recensa, Halecania pepegospora, Lecanora minutella, Leprocaulon adhaerens, Opegrapha corticola, Placynthiella hyporhoda, Pyrenidium aggregatum (on Phaeophyscia rubropulchra), and Scoliciosporum pensylvanicum.
Keywords. – Appalachian, biodiversity, floristics, new records, North America, temperate.
The state of Ohio has a long and distinguished history of lichenological study spanning nearly two centuries (Andreas et al. 2005; Bogue 1893; Claassen 1895, 1912, 1917; Fink 1921; Fischer 1895; Fulford 1937; Hambleton 1906, 1910; Kaucher & Snider 1982; Rudolph 1974; Showman 1975, 1977, 1981; Tuckerman 1849; Washburn 2005; Wolfe 1940). Macrolichens have been particularly well studied in the state, and were the focus of multiple published guides or treatments (Carrington 1921; Fink & Richards 1915; Flenniken & Showman 1990; Showman & Flenniken 2004; Showman & Klips 2015; Taylor 1967, 1968). In contrast, the crustose lichens of Ohio remain relatively poorly known, with the majority of records in modern times having been derived from a Tuckerman Workshop held in the southern portion of the state in 2006 (Andreas et al. 2007). Recently the author had the opportunity to spend several days in the field in Ohio with Ray Showman, Tomás Curtis and Mark Zloba prior to the Ohio Natural History Symposium in 2017. During this trip several species were located that had not been previously reported from the state. These reports are presented here.
Materials and methods
Specimens cited in this study were deposited in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden (NY). They were examined dry using an Olympus SZ-STB dissecting microscope. Sections of the ascomata and thalli were made by hand using a razor blade, mounted in water, and examined using an Olympus BX53 compound microscope. Chemistry was studied using standard spot tests following Brodo et al. (2001). Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was also performed on selected specimens using Solvent C following Culberson and Kristinsson (1970) but as modified for the peanut butter jar by Lendemer (2011).
New and interesting records
Bacidia sorediata Lendemer& R.C. Harris
Notes. – Bacidia sorediata was recently described from numerous sites throughout of temperate eastern North America (Lendemer et al. 2016). In addition to the Ohio records of the species reported in the original publication, several new records are provided here. The species is almost certainly common and widespread throughout much of Ohio, but overlooked because it is sterile. It can be recognized by its occurrence on bark, especially the bases of trees, and dark greenish thallus with lighter green diffuse soralia. Although B. sorediata grows on bark, there is a strong tendency for it to overgrow bryophytes on bark, and in those cases the soralia are typically formed on the bryophytes rather than the bark substrate.
Specimens examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. ADAMS CO.: Edge of Appalachia Preserve, SW of Chalet, above Brushy Creek, 1.0 mi S of Abner Hollow Rd., 24 April 2015, on Carya base, J.C. Lendemer et al. 44502 (NY). GALLIA CO.: Wayne National Forest, Symmes Creek Natural Area, 19 May 2006, on Quercus base, R.C. Harris 52629 (NY); Chesire Township, Gavin Mitigation Wetland, 23 March 2017, on Salix, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50358 (NY). MEIGS CO.: Shade River State Forest, S of CR265/Number 9 Rd., 1.3 mi NE of jct w/ CR46/Success Rd., 23 March 2017, on Aesculus, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50351 (NY). SCIOTO CO.: Shawnee State Forest, at southern junction of Forest Service Roads 3 & 6, ~1.6 miles west of Bear Creek Lake, 21 May 2006, on Quercus, J.C. Lendemer 7208 (NY), J.C. Lendemer 7221 (NY). VINTON CO.: Madison Township, Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest, Watch Rock, 22 March 2017, on large Carya base, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50300 (NY).
Fuscidea recensa (Stirt.) Hertel et al.
Notes. – This is a sorediate crustose lichen that produces divaricatic acid and occurs on rocks throughout the Appalachians (Fryday 2008). Fertile, esorediate populations with divaricatic acid have been treated by Fryday (2008) as an infrapsecific taxon under Fuscidea recensa, however pending studies with molecular data I have continued to treat these as a distinct species (e.g., Lendemer 2008, 2009). This is the first report of the species form Ohio.
Specimen examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. VINTON CO.: Madison Township, Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest, Watch Rock, 22 March 2017, on sheltered rock, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50307 (NY).
Halecania pepegospora (H. Magn.) v.d. Boom
Notes. – Halecania pepegospora is an inconspicuous crustose lichen that grows on strongly to moderately sun exposed non-calcareous rocks and has a distinctive dark greenish-black colored blastidiate thallus that produces argopsin (Lendemer 2008, Lendemer et al. 2013, van den Boom et al. 2004). The species is widespread in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America and this is the first report from Ohio.
Specimen examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. VINTON CO.: Madison Township, Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest, Watch Rock, 22 March 2017, on vertical rock, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50310 (NY).
Lecanora minutella Nyl.
Notes. – As the name implies, Lecanora minutella is a minute and inconspicuous species. It was originally described from Lookout Mountain in Hamilton County, Tennessee more than a century ago. (Nylander 1890). More recently it was recognized as being much more widespread in temperate eastern North America, mostly often occurring on the scales of year-old cones of various pine species, as well as more rarely on the bark itself (LaGreca & Lumbsch 2001, McMullin & Lendemer 2016). This is the first report of the species from Ohio. It is likely much more widespread and simply overlooked because of its small size and unusual substrate.
Specimen examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. MEIGS CO.: Shade River State Forest, N of CR265/Number 9 Rd., 0.5 mi E of jct w/ CR46/Success Rd., 23 March 2017, on Pinus virginiana cone, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50343 (NY).
Leprocaulon adherens (K. Knudsen, Lendemer & Elix) Lendemer & B.P. Hodk.
Notes. – Leprocaulon adherens is a very distinctive leprose lichen that was originally described from western North America (Knudsen et al. 2007) and subsequently found at numerous sites throughout eastern North America (Lendemer unpublished data). It is easily recognized by its dark blue-gray color, which is similar to the soredia of Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl. or some species of Pannariaceae, and the production of both pannarin and zeorin. These are the first reports of the species from Ohio. Although it is typically found on non-calcareous rocks in sheltered overhangs, L. adherens also rarely occurs on the bark of trees in humid microhabitats.
Specimens examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. ADAMS CO.: Chaparral Prairie State Nature Preserve, 22 May 2006, on Carya, J.C. Lendemer 7363 (NY). VINTON CO.: Madison Township, Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest, Watch Rock, 22 March 2017, on rock in overhang, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50311 (NY).
Opegrapha corticola Coppins & P. James
Notes. – This species was first reported from North America by Tønsberg (2002) on the basis of collections from Arkansas and Oklahoma. It has subsequently been found to be widespread throughout much of temperate eastern North America (Lendemer unpublished data) where it is common on the bark of hardwoods, as well as certain conifers such as juniper (Juniperus). Opegrapha corticola can easily be recognized by its immersed and inconspicuous thallus and yellowish or bronze-colored soredia whose coloration is presumably derived from the carotenoid content of the Trentepohlia photobiont. Although easily overlooked in the field, thalli of O. corticola with particularly brightly colored soredia can be mistaken for a species of Caloplaca (these are easily separated by their K+ purple thalli). These are the first reports of the species from Ohio.
Specimens examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. ADAMS CO.: Edge of Appalachia Preserve, SW of Chalet, above Brushy Creek, 1.0 mi S of Abner Hollow Rd., 24 April 2015, on Carya, J.C. Lendemer et al. 44501 (NY). VINTON CO.: Madison Township, Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest, Watch Rock, 22 March 2017, on large Carya, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50301 (NY).
Parmotrema hypotropum (Nyl.) Hale
Notes. – Parmotrema hypotropum is a common and conspicuous macrolichen that differs from P. perforatum (Jacq.) A. Massal. in having a sorediate thallus (vs. esorediate in P. perforatum) (see Lendemer et al. 2015). Although apothecia are rare in P. hypotropum, a single fertile thallus was found during the recent trip to Ohio. The ascospores were found to be subglobose, 6-9 x 5.4-9 µm in size and the conidia were hyaline, rod-like, and 10.6 +1.2 µm long. Interestingly the conidia are markedly shorter than those reported for P. perforatum (12.9 +1.7 µm fide Widhelm et al. 2016).
Specimen examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. GALLIA CO.: Chesire Township, Gavin Mitigation Wetland, 23 March 2017, on Salix, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50381 (NY).
Placynthiella hyporhoda (Th. Fr.) Coppins & P. James
Notes. – Like most other members of the genus, Placynthiella hyporhoda is a relatively inconspicuous species that grows on humus and organic matter (Coppins & James 1984). It is most similar to P. uliginosa (Schrad.) Coppins & P. James, but differs in having apothecia with a dark brown pigmented hypothecium that reacts strongly K+ purple, with the reaction being so intense that the purple bleeds out into the surrounding mount under the microscope. The species appears to be very rare in North America and the small number of times that the author has seen it, it was found on moist soil along old roads and trail banks. This appears to be the first report of the species from Ohio.
Specimen examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. VINTON CO.: Madison Township, Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest, Watch Rock, 22 March 2017, on humus, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50308 (NY).
Notes. – Pyrenidium aggregatum is a lichenicolous fungus that forms conspicuous galls of host thalli, especially of Phaeophyscia rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl. It can easily be recognized by these galls, which contain multiple perithecia with 4-celled brown ascospores (Knudsen & Kocourková 2010). The species is known from throughout much of temperate eastern North America, where it appears to be common. These are the first reports for the species from Ohio.
Specimens examined. – U.S.A. OHIO. ADAMS CO.: Chaparral Prairie State Nature Preserve, 22 May 2006, on Phaeophyscia rubropulchra on Acer, J.C. Lendemer 7270 (NY), Edge of Appalachia Preserve, NE of Chalet, 1.0 mi S of Abner Hollow Rd., 24 April 2015, on P. rubropulchra on fallen Quercus, J.C. Lendemer et al. 44479 (NY). MEIGS CO.: Shade River State Forest, S of CR265/Number 9 Rd., 1.3 mi NE of jct w/ CR46/Success Rd., 23 March 2017, on P. rubropulchra on Aesculus, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50352 (NY); rest area on W side of US30, 1.4 mi S of Darwin, 23 March 2017, on P. rubropulchra on Acer, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50312 (NY).
Scoliciosporum pensylvanicum R.C. Harris
Notes. – This species was first described from Pennsylvania (Harris 2009) and subsequently discovered at scattered sites in the central and southern Appalachians of eastern North America (Lendemer unpublished data). It is easily recognized by its granulose, esorediate, greenish thallus with small, light brown biatorine apothecia, needle-shaped colorless spores, and the production of lobaric acid (KC+ fleeting purple, UV+ bright blue-white). The species is widespread and common in humid habitats such as stream ravines, where it occurs on the bark of hardwoods. It also occurs in the deep bark grooves of large chestnut oaks (Quercus prinus). These are the first reports for the species from Ohio.
Specimens examined. – U.S.A OHIO. MEIGS CO.: Shade River State Forest, S of CR265/Number 9 Rd., 1.3 mi NE of jct w/ CR46/Success Rd., 23 March 2017, on Aesculus, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50350 (NY). VINTON CO.: Madison Township, Vinton Furnace Experimental Forest, Watch Rock, 22 March 2017, on large Quercus prinus in bark grooves, J.C. Lendemer et al. 50293 (NY).
The species newly reported here from Ohio were collected as part of fieldwork carried out during outreach activities with the Ohio Moss and Lichen Association (OMLA) as part of NSF Dimensions Award 1542639 (to the author) and 1542629 (to E. Tripp, N. Kane and C. McCain). Ray Showman is thanked for taking the author in the field during his trip to Ohio in 2017, and more generally for his hospitality during that trip.
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(published in OBELISK, Vol. 14, p. 9-16)